A therapeutic Porphyromonas gingivalis gingipain vaccine induces neutralising IgG1 antibodies that protect against experimental periodontitis
Porphyromonas gingivalis infected mice with an established P. gingivalis-specific inflammatory immune response were protected from developing alveolar bone resorption by therapeutic vaccination with a chimera (KAS2-A1) immunogen targeting the major virulence factors of the bacterium, the gingipain proteinases. Protection was characterised by an antigen-specific IgG1 isotype antibody and Th2 cell response. Adoptive transfer of KAS2-A1-specific IgG1 or IgG2 expressing B cells confirmed that IgG1-mediated protection. Furthermore, parenteral or intraoral administration of KAS2-A1-specific polyclonal antibodies protected against the development of P. gingivalis-induced bone resorption. The KAS2-A1-specific antibodies neutralised the gingipains by inhibiting: proteolytic activity, binding to host cells/proteins and co-aggregation with other periodontal bacteria. Combining key gingipain sequences into a chimera vaccine produced an effective therapeutic intervention that protected against P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis.