Endotoxins, also known as Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), are the major glycolipids of most Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes (Caroff and Karibian, Carbohydr Res. 2003; Raetz and Whitfield Annu Rev Biochem. 2002). LPS molecules forming the outer layer of this membrane represent about 50% of its weight and cover about 75% of the bacterial surface.
LPS molecules are highly immunogenic. While the polysaccharide moiety carries the antigenic determinants (O-chains or core side chains), the lipid A portion is recognized by the innate immune cell receptors (TLR4-MD2-CD14 complex of macrophages and dendritic cells), leading to the activation of signalling cascades and resulting in the secretion of pro- (and anti-) inflammatory cytokines, thereby initiating inflammatory and immune defense responses. Endotoxin concentrations in the order of pg/ml are detected by cells of the human and animal immune systems.
We use our proprietary method without phenol to extract Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria.We are able to provide you with ultra pure LPS thanks to our unique extraction method, which can be adapted to your expectations.
Here is a non-exaustive list of LPS products by LPS-BioSciences: click on the vial to request product.
The following products are for research purposes only and are not for use in humans or as diagnostic agents.