LPS-BioSciences has been studying dental plaque to explore the various bacteria composing it.
By extracting and studying Lipid A structures in the dental plaque matrix, LPS-BioSciences is able to distinguish the bacterial species composing it.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) expressed by epithelial and immune cells are largely described for the defense against invading microorganisms. Recently, their immunomodulatory functions have been highlighted in various contexts. However how AMPs expressed by non-immune cells might influence autoimmune responses in peripheral tissues, such as the pancreas, is unknown. Here, we found that insulin-secreting β-cells produced the cathelicidin related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) and that this production was defective in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. CRAMP administrated to prediabetic NOD mice induced regulatory immune cells in the pancreatic islets, dampening the incidence of autoimmune diabetes. Additional investigation revealed that the production of CRAMP by β-cells was controlled by short-chain fatty acids produced by the gut microbiota. Accordingly, gut microbiota manipulations in NOD mice modulated CRAMP production and inflammation in the pancreatic islets, revealing that the gut microbiota directly shape the pancreatic immune environment and autoimmune diabetes development.
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Vaccinations are one of the of most incredible aspects of modern medicine. Recently, for reasons that are not based on science or logic, many parents have outspokenly rejected vaccinating their children. Unfortunately, this has caused a reemergence of easily managed diseases. The Council on Foreign Relations has released an interactive map detailing the catastrophic outcome of these poor choices.
The interactive map gives a gut-wrenching tour of global outbreaks of measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and whooping cough from 2008-2014
LPS-BioSciences R&D project aims at developing a novel class of adjuvants to reduce side effects of vaccination due to the use of alum
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has awarded seven research contracts to discover and characterize new adjuvants, or substances formulated as part of vaccines to enhance their protective ability.
“The goal of this research is to identify novel adjuvant candidates that safely and selectively boost vaccine-induced immune responses,” said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. “Such adjuvants could be used to improve current vaccines, extend the vaccine supply or enhance vaccine efficacy in people with immature or weakened immune systems, such as infants and the elderly.”
Only three adjuvants — alum, AS04 and AS03 — are components of vaccines approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for human use. Alum, which is composed of aluminum salts, is included in many U.S.-licensed vaccines, including those that protect against hepatitis B and pneumococcal infections. AS04, a combination of alum and an immune-stimulating lipid (fat), is included in the vaccine Cervarix, which prevents infection with the two human papillomavirus types that cause most cervical cancers. The oil-in-water adjuvant AS03 is included in a vaccine for use in the event of an H5N1 bird flu epidemic.
NIAID adjuvant discovery contracts awarded in 2003 and 2009 identified adjuvants that trigger a small set of receptors of the innate, or inborn, immune system. The innate immune response helps shape adaptive, or acquired, immunity, which confers long-term protection from infection by specific pathogens. The new NIAID awards aim to expand the scope of adjuvant research by searching for any compound involved in the activation of the adaptive immune system.