Endotoxins, also known as Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), are the major glycolipids of most Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes (Caroff and Karibian, Carbohydr Res. 2003; Raetz and Whitfield Annu Rev Biochem. 2002). LPS molecules forming the outer layer of this membrane represent about 50% of its weight and cover about 75% of the bacterial surface.  

 Outer-membrane-Lipopolysaccharides-Lipid_A-Inner-outer-core-O-antigen-SDS-PAGE

LPS molecules are highly immunogenic. While the polysaccharide moiety carries the antigenic determinants (O-chains or core side chains), the lipid A portion is recognized by the innate immune cell receptors (TLR4-MD2-CD14 complex of macrophages and dendritic cells), leading to the activation of signalling cascades and resulting in the secretion of pro- (and anti-) inflammatory cytokines, thereby initiating inflammatory and immune defense responses. Endotoxin concentrations in the order of pg/ml are detected by cells of the human and animal immune systems. 
 
We use our proprietary method without phenol to extract Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria.We are able to provide you with ultra pure LPS thanks to our unique extraction method, which can be adapted to your expectations.
Here is a list of the first LPS products that will soon be available.
 
The following products are for research purposes only and are not for use in humans or as diagnostic agents.

 

 

LPS from Bordetella pertussis 

LPS from Escherichia coli J5 

LPS from Escherichia coli O157:H7 

LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis